To resolve 1st pair of research concerns concerning the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing sex that is same behavior and containing speak about intercourse linked to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions with one of these nominal data. When it comes to 2nd collection of research concerns, we utilized just those demonstrates that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 minute periods ( ag e.g., quantity of periods each hour of program time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to check team distinctions. Significant f that is omnibus had been followed up with post hoc comparisons utilizing Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to determine significant distinctions across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one in six programs within our examples included any sexual content (behavior or talk) linked to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) ended up being significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining Table 1 shows the portion of implies that contained any exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals by system genres, by kind of system, and also by time of day aired. The 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: commercial broadcast (which included the three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable movie (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime) for network type. Pertaining to time of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. were categorized as late afternoon/early night and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Percentage of Episodes with Same Intercourse Sexual actions and talk that is sexual to Nonheterosexuals
Note: Within types of system and time of day aired, percentages within the exact same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p dining dining Table 1 ). Generally in most situations, there clearly was a high amount of communication between a genre’s general positions for exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual mention nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas. Furthermore, genres’ standings on these two factors had been fairly stable over the two tv periods.
Three genres were consistently reduced in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or sexual talk linked to nonheterosexuals either in 12 months), news publications (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for year 2). 3 Genres that tended to own the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and component movie. Created for television movies and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nevertheless, both these groups included only a small amount of programs (letter = 7), which makes it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we consist of these second two genres when you look at the tables, we try not to emphasize the findings connected with them.
System kind evaluations
Across system types, we discovered comparable patterns generally speaking in nonheterosexual content that is sexual the 2 tv periods, with regularly reduced percentages of programs on commercial broadcast companies containing exact same intercourse sexual behavior and intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals plus the greatest percentages of programs with both forms of content on premium cable movie systems. The typical range periods containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior ended up being 3.7 in 12 months 1 and dropped to 3.0 in year 2. This distinction, nonetheless, had not been statistically significant (p = .23). Similarly a t test of the 331 episodes from 12 months 1 and 12 months 2 that included non heterosexual intimate talk suggested that the real difference into the regularity of these content amongst the two television seasons (4.2 periods in 12 months 1 and 4.9 periods for 12 months 2) wasn’t significant (p = .18).
Quantity of exact exact Same Intercourse Sexual Behavior and Talk linked to Nonhetrosexuals each hour of Program Time
Note: Within style of network and time of day aired, means within the column that is same do not share subscripts vary at p 1 For ease of presentation, we utilize the term вЂњnonheterosexualвЂќ to refer collectively to all or any people whose intimate orientation just isn’t solely heterosexual, including homosexual men, lesbians, and bisexuals of either sex.
2 one other behavior that is sexual had been used to recapture all the other kinds of intimate tasks that failed to belong to the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual activity implied, and sexual activity depicted including low degree sexual functions such as for instance leering to advanced level intimate functions such as for instance masturbation and bondage and control.
3 Because our system test had been gathered between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., some talk programs, such as for instance Jerry Springer, that may deal more often with intimate themes weren’t included since they had been blonde teen webcam broadcast early in the day. The 12 talk programs within our test included those broadcast into the and evening such as Oprah, Rosie O’Donnell, Ricki Lake, The Other Half, and BET Tonight as well as political talk shows (e.g., Face the Nation, McLaughlin Group, The Chris Matthews Show) afternoon.
4 Because our examples consist of programs from both commercial broadcast and cable companies, we utilized a regular product quantity of 2 moment periods each hour of system time in place of quantity of 2 moment periods per one hour show to evaluate the regularity of sexual behavior and speak about sex regarding nonheterosexuals. This is the reason the fact commercials significantly lessen the amount of system content on broadcast networks to about 22 two moment intervals in a single hour system, whereas one hour cable programs typically have actually about 30 two moment intervals.
Deborah A. Fisher, Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Douglas L. Hill, Associate Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel W. Grube, Director and a Senior Research Scientist during the Prevention analysis Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Enid L. Gruber, Assistant Professor within the Department of Child and Adolescent Studies at Ca State University, Fullerton.